Prophet Muhammed’s Last Sermon

All praise be to Allah. We glorify Him and seek His help and pardon; and we turn to Him. We take refuse with Allah from the evils of ourselves and from the evil consequences of our deeds. There is none to lead him astray whom Allah guides aright, and there is none to guide him aright whom He leads astray. I bear witness that there is no god but Allah alone, having no partner with Him, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His bondman and His Messenger. I admonish you, O bondmen of Allah! to fear Allah and I urge you to His obedience and I open the speech with that what is good.

Ye people! Listen to my words: I will deliver a message to you, for I know not whether, after this year, I shall ever be amongst you here again. O people! verily your blood, your property and your honor are sacred and inviolable until you appear before your Lord, as this day and this month are sacred for all. Verily you will meet your Lord and you will be held answerable for your actions. Have I not conveyed the message? O Allah! Be my witness. He who has any trust with him, should restore it to the person who deposited it with him. Beware, no one committing a crime is responsible for it but he himself. Neither the son is responsible for the crime of his father, nor the father responsible for the crime of his son.

O people! Listen to my words and understand them. You must know that a Muslim is the brother of the Muslim and they form one brotherhood. Nothing of his brother is lawful for a Muslim except what he himself allows willingly. So you should not oppress one another. O Allah! have I not conveyed the message?

Behold! all practices of paganism and ignorance are now under my feet. The blood-revenges of the days of ignorance are remitted. The first claim on blood I abolish is that of Ibn Rabilah Ibn Harith who was nursed in the tribe of Sa�d and whom the Hudhail killed. Usury is forbidden, but you will be entitled to recover your principal. Wrong not and you would not be wronged. Allah has decreed that there should be no usury and I make a beginning by remitting the amount of interest which Abbas b. Abd al-Muttalib has to receive. Verily it is remitted entirely.

O people! fear Allah concerning women. Verily you have taken them on the security of Allah and have made their persons lawful unto you by words of Allah. Verily you have certain rights over your women and your women have certain rights over you. It is incumbent upon them to honor their conjugal rights and not commit acts of impropriety which, if they do, you have authority to chastise them, yet not severely. If your wives refrain from impropriety and are faithful to you, clothe and feed them suitably. Behold! Lay injunctions upon women but kindly.

O people! Listen and obey though a mangled Abyssinian slave is your Amir if he executes the ordinances of the Book of Allah among you.

O people! Verily Allah has ordained for every man the share of his inheritance. The child belongs to the marriage-bed and the violator of wedlock shall be stoned. He who attributes his ancestry to other than his father or claims clientship to other than his master, the curse of Allah, that of the angels, and the people will be upon him. Allah will accept from him neither repentance nor righteousness.

O people! Listen, O listen! verily the Satan despairs of ever being worshipped in this land of yours, but he will be pleased even if you follow him in matters which you regard as trifles. Therefore, you abstain from obedience to Satan.

Verily, I have left amongst you the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Apostle which if you hold fast, you shall never go astray. And if you were asked about me, what would you say? They replied: �We bear witness that you have conveyed the message and discharged your ministry.�

O people! Verily the intercalation (of a prohibited month) aggravates infidelity. Thereby the unbelievers are led to wrong. For they make it lawful one year and forbid it in another year to be in conformity with the number (of months) which Allah declared to be unlawful; so they consider violable that which Allah declared to be inviolable and they consider inviolable what Allah declared to be violable.

Verily the time has revolved in its own way from the day when the heavens and the earth were created. The number of months to Allah is twelve of which four are sacred; three are consecutive–Dhil Qa�dah, Dhil Hijjah, Muharram, and Rajab which is between Jamadah and Sha�ban. So I apprise you that your lives, your property and your honor must be as sacred to one another as this sacred day, in this sacred month, in this sacred town.

And your slaves; see that you feed them with such food as you eat yourselves; and clothe them with the clothes that you yourselves wear. And if they commit a fault which you are not inclined to forgive, then part with them for they are the servants of Allah and are not to be chastised.

Behold! Listen to me. Worship your Lord; offer prayers five times a day; observe fast in the month of Ramadan; make pilgrimage to the House (Ka�bah); pay readily the Zakat on your property and obey whatever I command you; only then you will get into heaven.

O people! Verily your Lord is one and your father is one. All of you belong to one ancestry of Adam, and Adam was created out of clay. There is no superiority for an Arab over a non-Arab and for a non-Arab over an Arab; nor for white over the black nor for the black over the white except in piety. �Verily the noblest among you is he who is the most pious.�

Behold the nearer ones of you should convey the message to the remoter ones. I have conveyed the message.

Then looking up to the heaven, he said: O Lord! I have delivered the message and discharged my ministry.

O Lord! I beseech Thee, bear Thou witness unto it. It was at this time that the verse regarding the completion of religion was revealed to him: �This day have I perfected for you your Faith, and completed My favor upon you. And I am well pleased with Al-Islam as your religion.�

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